Have you ever wondered if there was a difference between writing and speaking? Our immediate response may be yes, and the difference may be that spoken language has sound.
Volume 4, Issue A While she assumes that oral mastery, when it exists, influences reading, she finds that much recent research reveals the influence of reading on speaking. There also seems to be reciprocity between them, which may have implications for ESOL instruction. Focus on Basics editor Barbara Garner interviewed her to learn more.
What do you mean by reciprocity between reading and oral language? By reciprocity I mean that as skills in some aspect of oral language increase, they help development in reading, and as a person improves his reading skills, that improvement seems to enhance further improvement in the spoken language.
This seems to be a continuing spiral. In a small survey I did a few years ago, many of the teachers seemed to feel strongly that there was a theory supporting the primacy of the spoken language.
The word "transfer" came up a lot. Some people seemed to believe that a person only had to reach a certain level of oral proficiency in English and reading proficiency would automatically develop if they were already literate in their first language.
My guess is that the teachers were influenced by early s Goodman and Smith articles [on what came to be known as whole language]. Goodman and Smith became very influential in the ESOL community, even when the reading community began to contest their ideas regarding the acquisition of beginning reading skills.
I later tested 44 Latinos who had, in general, fairly high literacy in Spanish, but not a lot of exposure to written English in their ESOL instruction. Their performance on English tests was quite low. What are some of the main research findings that reflect reciprocity?
Some of the most convincing findings are reported in a number of studies. Phonemic awareness - noticing the individual sounds in word - seems to help with comprehension of the spoken language. Knowledge of spelling patterns seems to help improve pronunciation and listening.
Print experience is related to knowledge of grammar and print experience also seems to help learners acquire spoken language forms, for example, function words, such as conjunctions, prepositions and articles, and derivational word endings, which are endings that form new words.
An example of derivational word endings? Our model of speech mimicked our model of reading: And many of the same people who are seeing the connections between speaking and reading also report that beginning reading needs instruction. Under normal circumstances, we all learn to speak.
The research suggests that in the early stages of beginning reading in a second language accurate and fast word recognition is a good predictor of reading comprehension.
You might say that instead of [reading] being dependent on speech, both speech and reading are dependent on the same group of abilities needed to process phonologically difficult materials. Evidence for this is that most reading difficulties reside in phonological language difficulties.
Poor readers tend also to have poor speech perception, and phonological deficits in both spoken and written language. Beginning readers need to learn phonological awareness: If people are only doing oral skills, it might not include much attention to the elements of the sounds of the language - the bits and pieces - even if they do some work on pronunciation.
After the early stages of reading, the relationships [between speech and reading] may change, depending on learner, task, and circumstances.
For some second-language or foreign-language readers, the reading skills provide the bulk of the new language input. Most studies of adult literacy indicate that phonemic awareness is dependent on letter-sound knowledge.
For example, phonemic awareness usually begins to develop in illiterate adults after they have actually had experience with printed letters. Even the concept of "word" is usually not learned until the learner experiences words in print, separated from each other by spaces. As phonological awareness develops, it helps both first- and second-language learners to understand spoken language better.
What could teachers do to support this reciprocity?Speaking versus Writing THE PEN IS MIGHTIER THAN THE Spoken WORD. OR IS IT? So language consists of four "skills": two for output (speaking and writing); and two for input (listening and reading.
One important difference between speaking and writing is that writing is usually more durable or permanent.
When we speak, our words live for. Language skills SPEAKING VERSUS WRITING. There are many differences between the processes of speaking and writing.
Writing is not simply speech written down on paper. Learning to write is not a natural extension of learning to speak. Unlike speech, writing requires systematic instruction and practice.
What's the Difference between Speech and Writing? by William Bright. When we talk about 'language', sometimes we mean speech (spoken language), sometimes writing (written language). How are they different?
Of course, speech is spoken and heard, while writing is written and read. People everywhere start speaking during the first two . Reading and speaking are two fundamental skills we use to communicate, and they're deeply connected.
Explore the relationship between speaking and reading, and discover how each impacts the other. The Relationship Between Reading and Speaking Skills An Interview with Ann Hilferty. Ann Hilferty, Assistant Professor of English at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, has been exploring the research literature on the relationship between the development of reading and speaking skills, especially with adult English .
The key difference between language and communication is that language is a mode of communication. In other words, language is a medium used in transforming the message from one to other. The two words, language and communication, have clear distinctions in their meanings and connotations.